There is a line of thought that Russia, albeit, the russians of the former USSR are the scythians of legend. If we take all the passages regarding MAgog and Gog in some instances, we can make certain discoveries by being as PRECISE as we can with the scriptures.
Hesiod, ''the father of Greek didactic poetry,'' identified Magog with the Scythians and southern Russia in the 7th century B.C. (Hesiods writings precede the Book of Ezekiel.)
Herodotus of Harlicarnassus, known as the ''Father of History,'' wrote extensively about the descendants of Magog by their Greek name, the Scythians, in the 5th century B.C. Flavius Josephus records that Magogians were called ''Scythians'' by the Greeks. Philo, in the 1st century, identifies Magog with southern Russia.
To achieve the next level of depth one would have to study in the LXX and original Hebrew to note any discrepencies or added information missed in the translations. However, as I personally have not studied too in depth regarding this amazing prophecy, I state that I cannot offer opinions as I simply have none. The goal here is to let the text speak for itself and a lot of conclusions can be stipulated. However, because Gog’s “companions are referenced as well , I will not be chasing down all the references other than the first mentions of them in the bible. You are welcome to do so if God compels you to do so!
So here we go!
a) In the table of Nations (gen 10) Magog is a son of Japheth, the son of Noah. The only thing i see here of note is that as a nation, Magog like most of his other brothers don't have much said about their descendants, leading to at least imply that they carved out a pretty big piece of land for themselves Gen 10:5 "By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations". The sons of Japheth, while generally thought to have been the "European" placed descendants, in fact spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans according to the reasoning of many scholars.
b) The same is for 1 Chron. 1:5 as Magog is present in the genealogy. This Genealogy in 1 Chron. however has an interesting discrepancy elsewhere regarding Kainan the son of Arphaxad. Kainan shows up in the genealogy of Christ in the Gospel of Luke, which is the genealogy of Christ from Adam to Mary, but is omitted from the genealogies in both Genesis and 1 Chronicles. The only connection that has been established to my knowledge is that Kainan screwed up big time!
“1 In the twenty-ninth jubilee, in the first week, [1373 A.M.] in the beginning thereof Arpachshad took to himself a wife and her name was Rasu'eja, the daughter of Susan, the daughter of Elam, and she 2 bare him a son in the third year in this week, [1375 A.M.] and he called his name Kainam. And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for 3 himself a city. And he found a writing which former (generations) had carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, and he transcribed it and sinned owing to it; for it contained the teaching of the Watchers in accordance with which they used to observe the omens of the sun and moon and 4 stars in all the signs of heaven. And he wrote it down and said nothing regarding it; for he was 5 afraid to speak to Noah about it lest he should be angry with him on account of it.”
I bring this up because there might be some underlying code under the OT text as is prevalent elsewhere in the Tanach regarding Magog and God if anyone would like to pursue such an investigation.
c)The first mention of Gog is in 1 Chron 5:4 referenced as the father of Shimei and the son of Shemia who was the son of Joel. Interestingly enough, chapter 5 has left the descendants of the Judaic line and gone to Israel’s firstborn Reuben. But the text between vs 3 and 4 I cant make the actual connection…
“3 The sons, I say, of Reuben the firstborn of Israel were, Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.
4 The sons of Joel; Shemaiah his son, Gog his son, Shimei his son,”
Perhaps if someone would like to help me dig a little deeper, maybe Yehovah will bless us with understanding. Perhaps this Gog has nothing to do with the Gog related to Magog.. Perhaps he does. I do know that many Scholars have puzzled over this for hundreds of years! But this might be a relevant case for the “rule of biblical first mention” in regards to identifying who Gog is.
d) Ezekiel’s Magog and Gog. This is where it all really starts to run off in 1000 tandems for many. I am NOT making any claims here just listing the “evidence” unless otherwise EXPLICITLY stated! This is one of those instances I believe that many advisors will bring the victory so if you have any insight, please chime in:
So Ezekiel chapters 38 and 39… well we’ve all read it. But if you take a step back from the text and the preconceived ideas we bring, we can realize that, without ANY doubt, that chapter 37, comes BEFORE chapter 38… common sense I know. But most “Teachers” who are making these speculations and have for decades, I’ve never heard them go through the text SEQUENTIALLY! Chuck Missler often joked that most Christians were surprised, even SHOCKED that there were more Chapters in Ezekiel other than 38 and 39. Rapturitis has infected many brethren unfortunately. But I digress…
Chapter 37 of Ezekiel: the valley of the dry bones: A GREAT prophecy given to a prophet who was exiled along with his countrymen for their sin and the sins of their forefathers. Yahovah is promising Ezekiel RESTORATION of the nation. Something people in this group are familiar with unlike those who follow dispensational theology. The grafting of the stick of Ephraim and Judah. And in vs 21 it states “21 And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I will take the children of Israel from among the heathen, whither they be gone, and will gather them on every side, and bring them into their own land:”
Question… has this propchecy been fulfilled? Some speculate yes, some speculate no, some are saying that it is in the process of being fulfilled and some just don’t know.
Vs 22 does give us a little clarity… “22 And I will make them one nation in the land upon the mountains of Israel; and one king shall be king to them all: and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all.” Here we see an obvious reference to the coming Messiah, that the prophecy is fulfilled in such a way. But again… it could be a “process” as the valley of the dry bones story happens in sequential steps. Bones rise up, tendons, sinew, etc… In fact the dry bones story might also be a type in reference to the resurrection of the believers as well.
Before we get to Ezekiel 38 and 39 however, it is PARAMOUNT to understand that the theology that was brought forward after the events of 1945-1949 have directly influenced the understanding of the events regarding magog. Most americans and westerners were under the impression that Israel had returned to the land and all was golden. A huge chunk of Israel did in fact return to the land but the prophecy is not yet fulfilled according to vs 22 onward.
Now regarding chapters 38 and 39… I know what a lot of people think.. I was one of them. However, I am learning that the more I learn, the less I know.
Ezekiel 38 is followed by the last verses of chapter 37 which are:
“24 And David my servant shall be king over them; and they all shall have one shepherd: they shall also walk in my judgments, and observe my statutes, and do them.
25 And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob my servant, wherein your fathers have dwelt; and they shall dwell therein, even they, and their children, and their children's children for ever: and my servant David shall be their prince for ever.
26 Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them; it shall be an everlasting covenant with them: and I will place them, and multiply them, and will set my sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore.
27 My tabernacle also shall be with them: yea, I will be their God, and they shall be my people.
28 And the heathen shall know that I the Lord do sanctify Israel, when my sanctuary shall be in the midst of them for evermore.”
Now, I believe, that this is a reference to the millennial Kingdom established on the earth after the return of Christ. I am welcome to hear other possibilities but personally I have found none.
And, if that is the case, then the events regarding ch 38 PROBABLY happen toward the end of the millennial kingdom as stated in revelation regarding satan being let loose for a time to attempt to deceive the nations… as the most obvious reason for this particular event is to give the final test of the hearts of the believers before the new earth and new heavens and new Jerusalem come. However, since prophecy, to the Hebrew mind, is pattern and not prediction and fulfillment, these events might actually be the close that brings forth the millennial reign. Time will tell.
e) in the prophecy of Ch. 38 vs2 it’s important to note that Gog, is the person, not Magog. This is also clarified at the end of the verse and also later in the prophecy.
“2 Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him,” HIM – one person referenced.
f) vs 4 has a very interesting factoid. God says that he will put “hooks in his mouth” . So it is God that is causing him to go to this battle. So certainly an external force,but how that looks to the world? I don’t know…
g) From reading the prophecy, we see the alliances that he has as well. Gog is the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. Meshech and Tubal are kin of Magog, sons of Japheth, who along with Tiras have no further descendants listed in the table of nations of Genesis 10.
vs 5-6 Persia, Ethiopia, and Libya are NOT listed in the table of nations but I do believe in older translations more to the original text, the names used are from the table of nations references. In VS 6 “6 Gomer, and all his bands; the house of Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his bands: and many people with thee.” Gomer IS in fact listed in the table of nations as the first listed son of JAPETH! And Togarmah is the son of Gomer as are Ashkenaz, and Riphath.
I think it’s interesting that the only sons of Japheth and his descendants not referenced by name yet are Javan and Tiras.
h) vs7 Gog is referenced as a protector of these peoples, “a guard”
i) vs. 8 another thing I found interestings… Gog is “visited” There is a lot of info here so I’d like to break it down: however, for true precision the original texts will have to be used. (I’ve stumbled using the English similarly with Ezekiel chapter 1 which halted my studies)
in the latter years
thou shalt come into the land that is brought back from the sword, and is gathered out of many people,
against the mountains of Israel, which have been always waste:
but it is brought forth out of the nations, and they shall dwell safely all of them.
This DOES seem like a reference to a rebuilt Israel after it’s distruction in 70-13? AD but the key is the final part… “and they dwell SAFELY, all of them” (again in vs 14 ) so he IS moving on Israel… (vs 18)
j) vs 13 is also of note. “13 Sheba, and Dedan, and the merchants of Tarshish, with all the young lions thereof, shall say unto thee, Art thou come to take a spoil? hast thou gathered thy company to take a prey? to carry away silver and gold, to take away cattle and goods, to take a great spoil?”
it does look here they are saying “seriously? You are going to war?” almost out of disgust… and those mentioned are sheba and Dedan, descendants of cush through Seba and Tarshish, descendants of Javan.
k) ch 39 vs 2… interesting factoid. 1/6 is left of Gog’s army. 1/6 = 16.6666 %
l) also we have an explicit mention that he comes from the NORTH
m) vs 3 another factoid some scholars have made a connection that the arrows mentioned can be stated as some sort of “smart weapons”, Jeremiah 50:9 being the reference.
n)vs 6 God sends a fire onto Magog, referenced so far as the land, and among them that dwell carelessly in the isles.
o) after the thwarting of the invasion, vs.9 forward, the weapons are used for fuel… and then go plunder those that tried to plunder them.
p) the chapter continues with the buriel of the bodies and specifically vs 18 reads a bit like Revelations at the death of the whore of Babylon… just as a note.
q) Mind you all of this is done so that the WORLD will know that YAHOVAH is GOD.. I believe 54 mentiones in the bookof Ezekiel alone. But vs 23 adds that also the heathen know that the house of Israel went into captivity for their iniquity… there’s more… a lot more in fact, which again makes me wonder if this prophecy is also a type.
“22 So the house of Israel shall know that I am the Lord their God from that day and forward.23 And the heathen shall know that the house of Israel went into captivity for their iniquity: because they trespassed against me, therefore hid I my face from them, and gave them into the hand of their enemies: so fell they all by the sword. 24 According to their uncleanness and according to their transgressions have I done unto them, and hid my face from them. 25 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; Now will I bring again the captivity of Jacob, and have mercy upon the whole house of Israel, and will be jealous for my holy name; 26 After that they have borne their shame, and all their trespasses whereby they have trespassed against me, when they dwelt safely in their land, and none made them afraid. 27 When I have brought them again from the people, and gathered them out of their enemies' lands, and am sanctified in them in the sight of many nations; 28 Then shall they know that I am the Lord their God, which caused them to be led into captivity among the heathen: but I have gathered them unto their own land, and have left none of them any more there. 29 Neither will I hide my face any more from them: for I have poured out my spirit upon the house of Israel, saith the Lord God.”
Whew… So this is Ezekiel done… let’s move on!
r) Of course, the final mention is Revelation 20:8 “And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog, and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea”
s) now THIS reference, regardless of which eschatological approach you take to the book of revelations, DOES happen AFTER the return of Christ, the first resurrection of the dead (the righteous), and the establishment of the millennial kingdom. (Christ returns in Chapter 19)
t) again taking a step back, vs 7 comes before vs 8. “7 And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison,8 And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog, and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.”
u) in fact the remainder of the prophecy lines up quite nicely with Ezekiel: “9 And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.”
So that’s all folks. Hope this study guide helps you guys. Am happy to discuss it further with anyone privately or in the group.